When is a virus not a virus? When it´s a piece of spyware. Spyware – also known as advertising-supported software or adware – has been until recently a fairly benign snooper on your surfing habits. The data it gathers from your visit is used to target you with tailored advertising, either in pop-up windows or emails.
The problem is that these software spies are starting to get nasty.
Spyware is being written and propagated with the express purpose of recording personal data such as passwords and credit card numbers, or hijacking your browser and bookmarking porn or other undesirable sites, or grabbing your web dialler. Some spyware even features self-updating code so that conventional freeware removal tools have no effect.
What´s more, unlike viruses and worms, most people with spyware on their computers have asked for it, albeit unwittingly. Many websites may ask you to register or sign up to them to receive content, and by doing so you may agree that spyware can operate on your computer – but this critical point is often buried in lengthy terms and conditions sections where most users won´t see it.
And it isn´t a small-scale problem. Research in the United States in Spring 2004 showed that one in three computers scanned had spyware hidden on its hard drive. A total of 650,000 machines were scanned, finding more than 18m spyware tools.
Nor is spyware confined to home users. The average amount of spyware on business machines is similar to home users´ – largely because most companies don´t have centralised, managed anti-spyware protection in place. Certain spyware – such as that used by P2P networks like Kazaa – is also bandwidth hungry as it communicates a lot of data between machines, which can be a problem on corporate networks.
This is becoming such a sizeable problem in the United States that the government voted unanimously in Spring 2004 to approve the first-ever anti-spyware bill. The Securely Protect Yourself Against Cyber Trespass (Spy Act), approved by the United States House of Representatives, would levy fines up to $3m for those who illegally collect personal information, change a browser´s default home page or bookmarks, log keystrokes or steal identities.
So how has spyware been allowed to get this far without being restrained? The key problem is that we have accepted spyware in a variety of forms for too long. A cookie – the website marketeer´s long time friend – is a form of spyware.
Microsoft uses various forms of friendly spyware to help most of us in our everyday work, by tracking what documents and applications we´ve used recently and giving us quick, one-click access to them.
But in the same way that internet worms evolved to take advantage of email, malware authors are now taking spyware away from its neutral roots into internet crime – whether by hijacking browsers and diallers, keystroke logging or laying the groundwork for mass spamming. These authors are also using tricks from the virus world by finding and exploiting browser vulnerabilities to their advantage.
This means that spyware may be installed even on a fully-patched Windows machine running the latest anti-virus software.
A partial solution is to combine anti-virus software with a personal firewall – but even this isn´t a complete fix. Spyware can get installed through ActiveX which is enabled with MS Internet Explorer. Alternatively, it can exploit vulnerabilities that are patched in Internet Explorer – so-called zero day vulnerabilities – because the loophole is exploited before the patch is available and widely deployed.
Disabling ActiveX is an option – but it makes surfing difficult because many websites actively rely on using ActiveX. It´s frustrating to have to click “Yes” every single time the web browser asks you about running ActiveX scripts and controls.
So spyware has become both a security and a management issue for companies as it becomes destructive.
But how do companies manage the problem? There´s currently a dearth of corporate anti-spyware tools which integrate with other security applications, such as anti-virus and desktop firewalling.
However, this is soon to change. Anti-virus vendors are starting to introduce spyware and adware pop-up blocking and removal to their core anti-virus and internet security solutions.
These will be updated in exactly the same way as conventional virus signatures, and will give policy-based centralised management of this emerging issue – helping to nullify the threat from self-updating malicious spyware programs while giving IT staff the option to allow non-aggressive spyware.
By putting spyware on the security map, companies can ensure that the more malicious spyware elements do not come in from the cold.
Top tips for dealing with aggressive spyware:
- Use freeware tools to audit your PCs and identify what spyware is resident
- Use the same tools to try and remove unwanted spyware: a combination of two tools often works where a single tool fails
- Look at latest-generation AV software that includes anti-spyware functionality – giving corporate, policy-driven spyware management of this emerging problem.